Your character size alters the damage dice or damage of all weapons you use. 
Gnomes and Halflings (Small) therefore roll different damage dice both in melee and ranged. 
The Enlarge Person spell will transform a Medium character to Large or a Small character to Medium. 

The Weapons table on this wiki shows the more common Medium damage.

Small character damage Medium character damage Large character damage         Huge        
1 1d2 1d3 1d4
1d2 1d3 1d4 1d6
1d3 1d4 1d6 1d8
1d4 1d6 1d8 2d6
1d6 1d8 2d6 3d6
1d8 1d10 2d8 3d8
1d10 1d12 3d6 4d6
1d6 : when 2d4 reduced* 2d4 2d6 3d6
1d10 : when 2d6 reduced* 2d6 3d6 4d6
2d6 2d8 3d8 4d8

* The Small column can be confusing as it shows 1d6 and 1d10 twice, so here is an example : 
a Small character (Small weapon) doing 1d6 is Enlarged to 1d8, but a 2d4 Medium is reduced to 1d6.  ( It could have been a simpler system.)

Note : this damage scaling was used in Pathfinder : Kingmaker and is also used in Pathfinder 1.

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